Dental implants are teeth like structures that engage within the jaw bone resembling a teeth root. They engage in the bone surface through a process call osseointegration. They are made of titanium metal. It is bio-friendly and easily bonds with the bone.
HISTORY OF FIXED TEETH
A tooth is considered as a beauty quotient among people as they strongly believe that properly aligned teeth with a good smile exhibit confidence and elegance of the individual.
Loss of teeth especially your front teeth are considered a bad beauty factor. This criterion prevailed even among our ancient generations as reports of jaws obtained from the ancient Egyptian and ancient Mayan periods have teeth-like structures made from shells and ivory. These teeth-like structures replaced the missing teeth in the jaws obtained from this period.
The practice of fixed prosthesis was first introduced by Romans in 100 – 200 AD. Pre-Ingvar Branemark an Orthopedic surgeon paved way for the rise of implants by suggesting titanium as the material for making them.
First dental implants/root implants were placed in patients from 1965. During the late 90s, the practice of all on 4 implants was introduced.
Newer titanium implants coated with the hydrophilic surface (water-loving) helps in increasing the process of osseointegration was found in 2011. Continual research and advancements in this field are still evident for more improvised versions of dental implants.
TYPES OF DENTAL IMPLANTS:
- Endosteal implants: The most common type of dental implant. This implant is driven through the bone. Good bone quality and quantity is essential for this type of implants.
- Subperiosteal implants: This is advised in patients with a lesser quantity of jaw bone. The implant has a thin metal frame that is attached to the jaw on either side. It lies just beneath the gums.
- Zygomatic implants: Implants are recommended when there is really low bone density in the upper jaw. The implant is placed in the cheekbone on either side. It is not very common.
PARTS OF AN IMPLANT:
- Implant body: It resembles a screw-like structure that has serrations/threading on them for the osseointegration to take place. This part lies inside the bone.
- Abutment: This is the neck of the implant screwed to the implant body with the help of a screw.
- Crown: The artificial teeth that are screwed above the abutment.
CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR DENTAL IMPLANTS:
- In patients suffering from systemic disorders like osteoporosis (brittle bones).
- Patients with psychological disorders.
- Heavy smokers and alcoholics as the habits delay healing or causes the failure of dental implants.
- Poor bone quantity and quality.
- Patients undergoing radiation therapy.
- Insulin-dependent diabetes.
MAINTENANCE AFTER IMPLANT PLACEMENT:
- Don’t touch the surgical site with your finger or tongue.
- Don’t disturb the surgical site while brushing.
- Avoid brushing that region for 2 to 3 days.
- Rinse after every meal with care to avoid food accumulation in the site where the implant is placed.
- Avoid hot drinks and foods.
- Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption.
RISK ASSOCIATED AFTER IMPLANT PLACEMENT:
- Swelling/bruising after placement of the implant will regress with 2 to 3 days.
- Pain/tightness felt in the region of implant placement will reduce after a few days.
- A course of painkillers with antibiotics to be followed after the implant placement.
- In case of pain/swelling after a few days visit your dentist for examination of the implant placed.